Manual Astronomy & Cosmology: Major Achievements of Lesser-known Scientists:

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Ernest Orlando Lawrence American invented the cyclotron. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac British helped found quantum electrodynamics; predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics with special relativity. Alfred Kastler French discovered and developed optical methods for studying the Hertzian resonances that are produced when atoms interact with radio waves or microwaves.


Eugene Wigner Hungarian-born American contributed to theoretical atomic and nuclear physics; introduced concept of the nuclear cross section. Cecil F. Powell British developed the photographic emulsion method of studying nuclear processes; discovered the charged pion. Ernest Walton Irish co-invented the first particle accelerator. Pavel A. Carl David Anderson American discovered the positron and the muon. Felix Bloch Swiss-born American contributed to development of the NMR technique; measured the magnetic moment of the neutron; contributed to the theory of metals.

Sir Nevill F. Mott British contributed to theoretical condensed-matter physics by applying quantum theory to complex phenomena in solids; calculated cross section for relativistic Coulomb scattering. Hans Bethe German-born American contributed to theoretical nuclear physics, especially concerning the mechanism for energy production in stars. Maria Goeppert-Mayer German-born American advanced shell model of nuclear structure. Ernst Ruska German designed the first electron microscope.

Shin-Ichiro Tomonaga Japanese co-developed quantum electrodynamics. Hans D. Jensen German advanced shell model of nuclear structure. Edwin M. McMillan American made discoveries concerning the transuranium elements. Hideki Yukawa Japanese predicted existence of the pion.

Modern and future cosmology

John Bardeen American co-discovered the transistor effect; developed theory of superconductivity. Il'ja M.

Lev Landau Soviet contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity. Subramanyan Chandrasekhar Indian-born American made important theoretical contributions concerning the structure and evolution of stars, especially white dwarfs. William Shockley American co-discovered the transistor effect. Luis Walter Alvarez American constructed huge bubble chambers and discovered many short-lived hadrons; advanced the impact theory for the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Vera Rubin

William Fowler American studied nuclear reactions of astrophysical significance; developed, with others, a theory of the formation of chemical elements in the universe. Polykarp Kusch American experimentally established that the electron has an anomalous magnetic moment and made a precision determination of its magnitude. Edward Mills Purcell American developed method of nuclear resonance absorption that permitted the absolute determination of nuclear magnetic moments; co-discovered a line in the galactic radiospectrum caused by atomic hydrogen.

Glenn T. Seaborg American co-discovered plutonium and all further transuranium elements through element Willis E. Lamb, Jr. Robert Hofstadter American measured charge distributions in atomic nuclei with high-energy electron scattering; measured the charge and magnetic-moment distributions in the proton and neutron. Norman F. Ramsey, Jr.

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Clifford G. Shull American developed a neutron scattering technique in which a neutron diffraction pattern is produced that may be used to determine the atomic structure of a material. Charles H. Townes American created first maser using ammonia to produce coherent microwave radiation.

Astronomy Prizes Award Cosmic Achievements by Scientists | Space

Bertram N. Brockhouse Canadian developed the technique of neutron spectroscopy for studies of condensed matter. Richard P. Feynman American co-developed quantum electrodynamics; created a new formalism for practical calculations by introducing a graphical method called Feynman diagrams. Frederick Reines American established, together with Clyde L. Cowan, Jr. Julian Schwinger American co-developed quantum electrodynamics. Kai M. Siegbahn Swedish contributed to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy.

Nicolaas Bloembergen Dutch-born American contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy. Owen Chamberlain American co-discovered the antiproton. Yoichiro Nambu Japanese-born American contributed to elementary particle theory; recognized the role played by spontaneous symmetry-breaking in analogy with superconductivity theory; formulated QCD quantum chromodynamics , the gauge theory of color.

Andrei Sakharov Russian father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb; awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations. Arthur L. Schawlow American contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy. Jack Steinberger German-born American made many important discoveries in particle physics; co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; co-discovered the muon neutrino.

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Nikolai Basov Soviet worked in quantum electronics; independently worked out theoretical basis of the maser. Aage Bohr Danish contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei. Leon Lederman American contributed to the discovery of the muon neutrino and the bottom quark. Chen Ning Yang Chinese-born American co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions. Val Logsdon Fitch American co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation.

Jack S. Kilby American invented the monolithic integrated circuit - the microchip - which laid the foundation for the field of microelectronics; co-invented the hand held calculator. Willard S.

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

Boyle Canadian co-invented the CCD charge-coupled device. Georges Charpak French invented the multiwire proportional chamber. Roy J. Glauber American made important contributions to the theoretical understanding of quantum optics and high-energy collisions. Donald A. Glaser American invented the bubble chamber.

Henry W.