The party was beset by squabbles, supply shortages, bad planning and - ultimately - death. Aneas Mackintosh, who had been selected by Sir Ernest as team leader but turned out to be fatally hot-headed, was blown out to sea on drifting pack-ice, together with Victor Hayward, another expedition member.
Shackleton's 'disastrous leadership caused the deaths of three explorers'
The Rev Arnold Spencer-Smith, the team's padre, contracted scurvy and froze to death. Sir Ernest gives only scant mention of their plight in South, his own account of his expedition. Mr McElrea said his book was based on previously unpublished interviews that he and his co-author conducted with survivors of the expedition during the s and s. Their task was to deposit more than two tons of supplies at five separate depot camps along Sir Ernest's planned route - a trip that involved covering a distance of more than 2, miles on dog sledges across pack ice plagued by relentless blizzards and sudden thaws.
The historians' new account begins with the explorers' realisation that Sir Ernest's London-based supply team had failed to deliver almost half the equipment promised for the expedition - a bad start.
Once it had set off, the party ran into difficulties almost immediately. Their ship, the Aurora, which was moored according to instructions set down by Sir Ernest, snapped its anchor cables in a storm and was blown out to sea with most of the supplies aboard.
Chart to illustrate the paper on the drift of the "Endurance". | Library of Congress
The ship drifted in ice for nearly a year before it could be freed, leaving the man party marooned ashore with pitifully inadequate provisions. Members of the party had to sew makeshift footwear made out of sealskin sleeping bags and trousers were cut from the remains of discarded tents.
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The party stuck to its task, but squabbles broke out after Mackintosh, the one-eyed explorer selected by Sir Ernest to lead the expedition, refused to reduce the heavy loads the team was dragging, even though several men had frost boils and most of the dogs had died from exposure. Discipline continued to deteriorate and the food ration was reduced to eight sugar lumps and a biscuit a day.
Spencer-Smith, who was just 31, died from scurvy, while Mackintosh had to be strapped to a sledge after becoming delirious. The party finally made it back to a camp at McMurdo sound in March after a tour that had lasted six months. It's quite unmissable. We take the security of our website and of your transactions extremely seriously. Additionally, we do not store any card details at all, all payments are handled using a system of Tokenisation which is an industry-standard method of secure payment handling. Estimated shipping dates are accurate to the best of our knowledge, based on the latest stock information made available to us from the supplier.
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Lou achieves his best ever day's distanc Day 53 in Antarctica. Christmas Day. Lou is skiing in the early hours to make use of a weather gap. He gets in 14 nautical miles and stops at Day 52 in Antarctica. Lou wishes everyone a Merry Christmas! Rough conditions for Christmas Eve as he pushes on through heavy wind and whiteout.