The work performed at Halle in December was formerly thought to be no. Chrysander: G. The idea that it was no. On 23 March it was ordered that cantatas should in future be rehearsed in the chapel, not at home or in lodgings; and on Palm Sunday, 25 March, Bach performed no. This was the fourth Sunday after his appointment as Konzertmeister, when he had become responsible for writing a cantata every four weeks. As he evidently hoped to complete an annual cycle in four years, he did not keep strictly to this rule; having written a cantata for Advent Sunday in , he wrote for the last Sunday after Trinity in , and for the second Sunday in Advent in in he was in prison.
Apart from such intentional irregularities, there are gaps in the series, and the strange thing is that these gaps became suddenly more numerous after the end of One of the gaps is accounted for by the death at Frankfurt on 1 August of the musically gifted Prince Johann Ernst, plunging the duchy into mourning from 11 August to 9 November , when not a note of music might be played. From there are no cantatas at all. Meanwhile, the new organ at Halle had been making progress, and on 17 April the council resolved that Bach, Kuhnau of Leipzig and Rolle of Quedlinburg should be invited to examine it on 29 April.
They all accepted; each was to receive 16 thaler, plus food and travelling expenses.
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The examination began at 7 a. On 2 May the organist and the three examiners met the builder to discuss details. The council, who behaved liberally, gave a tremendous banquet, whose date is usually given as 3 May 1 May seems more likely. On 31 July Bach and an Arnstadt organ builder signed a testimonial for J.
The brothers had been on bad terms, and when Johann Ernst died in and his son Ernst came of age in , things became no better. The musicians, though paid by both households, were threatened with fines of 10 thaler if they served Ernst in any way. No extant Bach cantata can be securely dated between 19 January and 6 December ; it may seem unlikely that this long, continuous gap was due to casual losses. Drese senior died on 1 December ; his son, the vice-Kapellmeister, was by all accounts a nonentity.
Bach produced Cantatas nos. By Christmas, Bach may have found out that the duke was angling for Telemann. Negotiations with Telemann came to nothing; but apparently Bach now set about looking for a post as Kapellmeister.
The duke and Bach must nevertheless have remained on speaking terms for the time being, for at some date hardly earlier than the end of September Bach was in Dresden and free to challenge the French keyboard virtuoso Louis Marchand. Once there, some court official persuaded him to challenge Marchand to a contest at the harpsichord; the idea that they were to compete at the organ seems to have crept in later.
Whatever may be the truth about these and other details, it is universally agreed that Marchand ran away.
On his birthday, 30 October , Duke Wilhelm set up an endowment for his court musicians; and the second centenary of the Reformation was celebrated from 31 October to 2 November. Presumably Bach took part in these ceremonies, though there is no evidence that he set any of the librettos that Franck had provided.
Emboldened, perhaps, by the Marchand affair, he then demanded his release in such terms that the duke had him imprisoned from 6 November until his dismissal in disgrace on 2 December. Schubart became court organist. The post of Konzertmeister disappeared. Except during the few last months of his Weimar period, Bach had been on good terms with Duke Wilhelm; but his relations with that martinet must always have been official. He was born in , of a Calvinist father and a Lutheran mother. The father died in , the mother ruled until Leopold came of age on 10 December There was no court orchestra until October , when Leopold persuaded his mother to take on three musicians.
While studying in Berlin in , he met A.
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Stricker; from the end of to he was on the usual grand tour, during which he studied with J. Heinichen at Rome. He returned capable of singing bass, and of playing the violin, viola da gamba and harpsichord. The Berlin court orchestra had broken up in , and from July he employed Stricker as Kapellmeister and his wife as soprano and lutenist; by he had 18 musicians. In August Stricker and his wife seem to have resigned, leaving the prince free to appoint Bach. The Lutheran St Agnus had a two-manual organ of 27 stops, again with an exceptional pedal compass.
There is not the slightest reason to suppose that Bach wrote any particular work to exploit these pedal compasses, but no doubt he used one or both of the organs for teaching and private practice. He communicated at St Agnus, and took part in the baptisms at the court chapel, but had no official duties in either. He may, however, have been involved in the affair of May , when a cantata was put on for the dedication festival of St Agnus, and copies of presumably the libretto were printed.
Only one court official was paid more, and there is other evidence that Bach was held in high esteem.
On 17 November the last of his children by his first wife a short-lived son was named after the prince, who himself was a godfather. The orchestra needed a room for their weekly rehearsals; the prince supplied it by paying rent to Bach 12 thaler a year from 10 December to Whether he continued to use that room after his move in , and why he was not paid rent after , is not clear. That would normally have been his duty. The court accounts suggest that something connected with the birthday was either printed or bound in , as also in and Anh.
In there may have been no birthday celebrations, for the prince was married, at Bernburg, the next day. New Year cantatas also were expected. The work had been done by Johann Scheibe, with whose son Bach was later in dispute. On 9 May the prince went to drink the waters at Carlsbad for about five weeks, taking with him his harpsichord, Bach and five other musicians.
Early in Bach was in Berlin, negotiating for a new harpsichord. About this time he seems to have been busy composing or buying music, for between July and May some 26 thaler were spent on binding. During Handel visited his mother at Halle, only some 30 km away; it is said that Bach tried, but failed, to make contact with him. Bach also disregarded a renewed request from Mattheson for biographical material. In May Bach again went to Carlsbad with the prince. His wife had been nearly Her death may well have unsettled Bach, and even led him to think of returning to the service of the church; but there was a more practical reason for his taking an interest in St Jacobi at Hamburg.
The organist there, Heinrich Friese, died on 12 September ; Bach had known Hamburg in his youth, and must have been attracted by the organ, a four-manual Schnitger with 60 stops. There is no evidence that Bach was actually invited to apply for the post; but he may well have made inquiries of his own. At all events, his name was one of eight being considered on 21 November, and he was in Hamburg at about that time.
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Three candidates did not appear, and the judges were not satisfied with the other four. Perhaps he was unable, or unwilling, to contribute marks to the church funds, as the successful candidate actually did. From the way in which the committee kept the post open for Bach, one may suppose that they had heard his recital at St Katharinen. What he played is not known; but he was invited to send in some compositions. Such resources do not seem to have been available to the Margrave of Brandenburg, and it is not really surprising that he did not thank Bach, send a fee or use the score.
About the beginning of August he gave a performance of some unspecified kind for Count Heinrich XI Reuss of Schleiz; this may have been arranged by J. This baptism is recorded in three registers. In September Anna was again a godmother, to a child called Palmarius; again the registers differ in describing her occupation. Practically nothing is known of her early years. She was born on 22 September at Zeitz. Her father, Johann Caspar Wilcke, was a court trumpeter; he worked at Zeitz until about February , when he moved to Weissenfels where he died on 30 November The surname was variously spelt.
Liebe who, besides being a trumpeter, was organist of two churches at Zeitz from until his death in However, she was paid for singing, with her father, in the chapel at Zerbst on some occasion between Easter and midsummer The prince saved Bach 10 thaler by giving him permission to be married in his own lodgings.
At about this time Bach paid two visits to the city cellars, where he bought first one firkin of Rhine wine, and later two firkins, all at a cut price, 27 instead of 32 groschen per gallon. Perhaps her unfortunate influence had made itself felt even before she was married.
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Bach heard of this only by accident; and on 15 March he wrote to the Erfurt council on behalf of Jacob as well as himself. On 16 April Jacob died; and the matter seems to have been settled on these lines towards the end of the year. In summer there was no Kapellmeister at the court of Anhalt-Zerbst, and Bach was commissioned to write a birthday cantata for the prince; for this he was paid 10 thaler in April and May. The birthday was in August, and payments made during that month presumably refer to the performance.
Despite the sceptics, it remains reasonable to suppose that Bach gave the book to his wife early in It seems to have been filled by The writing is uniform in style, and for various reasons it is incredible that he did not finish the manuscript until This handsome fair copy was preceded by drafts, like those in W.
Presumably Bach brought them together for convenience, partly to serve as the last step in his keyboard course, partly to exhibit the advantages of equal temperament. As in book 2, no doubt Bach transposed some of the pieces to fill gaps in his key scheme; the odd pairing of the prelude in six flats with the fugue in six sharps suggests that the former was originally in E minor, the latter in D minor.
Bach P , f. The paper is of a kind that Bach used, as far as is known, only in A few items date from about ; in the rest, the writing resembles that of the cantatas of — Of the preludes Bach allowed for, he completed fewer than Its contents had already appeared, in earlier versions and under different titles, in W. Six men applied for the post, among them Telemann, who was still remembered for the good work he had done at Leipzig 20 years before. He had been doing a similar job at Hamburg for about a year, and was probably the most famous of German musicians actually living in Germany.
Telemann refused to do that; nevertheless, he was appointed on 13 August. But the Hamburg authorities would not release him, and offered to increase his pay; in November he declined the Leipzig post. At a meeting on 23 November Councillor Platz said that Telemann was no loss; what they needed was a Kantor to teach other subjects besides music. Of the remaining five candidates, three were invited to give trial performances; two dropped out, one because he would not teach Latin. By 21 December two Kapellmeisters had applied, Bach and Graupner.
Of the five candidates, Graupner was preferred; he was a reputable musician, and had studied at the Thomasschule. He successfully performed his test two cantatas on 17 January But on 23 March he too withdrew, having been offered more pay at Darmstadt.